The Mughal Emperors
The Mughal Empire prospered on the Indian subcontinent between the 16th and 18th centuries. Descended from the Turco-Mongol’s, and part of the Timurid Dynasty, the Mughal Empire had a total of 20 emperors before being overthrown by the British during their conquest of India.
1. Babur. Born Zahir-ud din Muhammed on February 23,1483. Babur reigned between April 30, 1526 and December 26, 1530. Babur died on December 26, 1530 at 47 years of age.
2. Humayun. Born Nasir-ud din Muhammed Humayun on March 17, 1508. Humayun ruled as emperor twice. He ascended to emperor on December 26, 1530 and reigned until he was overthrown by Sher Shah Suri on May 17, 1540. When Suri’s son died, Humayun was able to reassume the throne on February 22, 1555 where he ruled until his death on January 27,1556.
3. Akbar-e-Azam. Born Jalal-ud din Muhammed on October 14, 1542. He assumed his position as emperor at age 14 on January 27, 1556. Akbar-e-Azam ruled until October 27, 1605.
4. Jahangir. Born Nuir-ud din Muhammed Salim on September 20,1569. Jahangir ruled from October 15, 1605 until his death on November 8, 1627.
5. Shah-Jahan-e-Azam. Born on January 5, 1592 as Shahab-un din Muhammed Khurram. Shah-Jahan-e-Azam ruled between November 8, 1627 and August 2, 1658, except for three hours on January 23, 1628 during an attempted coup. Shah-Jahan-e-Azam is most famous for being the emperor who constructed the Taj Mahal.
6. Shahryar. Born Salef-ud din Muhammed on September 20, 1569. He attempted to overthrow the emperor and was emperor for three hours on September 23, 1628. Information about him after this date is unknown.
7. Alamgir. Born on November 4, 1618 as Muhy-ud din Muhammed Aurangzeb. Alamgir ruled July 31, 1658 until his death on March 3, 1707.
8. Azam Shah. Born Abul Faaiz Qutb-un din Muhammed Azzam. Azzam Shah ruled for 86 days between March 14, 1707 and June 8, 1707.
9. Bahadur Shah. Born Qutb-un din Muhammed Muazzam on October 14, 1643. Bahadur Shah ruled June 19, 1707 until his death on February 27, 1712. Bahadur Shah is most known as being one of the Mughal emperors who interacted peacefully with the Marathas and the Skhs.
10. Jahandar Shah. Born on May 9, 1661 Ma’az un din Jahandar Shah Bahadur. He ruled for 350 days between February 27, 1712 and February 11, 1713. He was one of the first Mughal emperors to be highly influenced by the royal vizier.
11. Farrukhsiyar. Born with the same name on August 20, 1685. Farrukhsiyar ruled from January 11, 1713 until February 28. 1719. Most known for granting the East India Trading Company exclusive rights to the area of Bengal.
12. Rafi ud Darajat. Born November 30, 1699 with the same name. Rafi ud Darajat ruled for 98 days between February 28 1719 and Jun 6, 1719. During this short period the Syed Brothers gained a lot of control in India.
13. Shah Jahan II. Born Rafi us Daulah on June 1696, Shah Jahan II ruled for 105 days between June 6, 1719 and September 19, 1719.
14. Muhammed Shah. Born Roshan Akhtar Bahadur on August 17, 1702. Muhammed Shah ruled between September 27, 1719 and April 26, 1748. Muhammed Shah was the last of the Mughal emperors to have true control over the country.
15. Ahmad Shah Bahadur. Born with the same name on December 23, 1725. He ruled between April 26, 1748 and June 2, 1754. Known for being defeated by the Marathas in battle.
16. Alamgir II. Born Aziz-un Din on June 6, 1899. Alamgir II ruled between June 2, 1754 and his death November 29, 1759. His ruling period was overshadowed by a very scandalous royal vizier who seemed to be in control of the throne.
17. Shah Jahan III. Born in 1711 as Muhi-ul Millat, Shah Jahan III ruled as a co-emperor between December 10, 1759 and October 10, 1760. Shah Jahan III died in 1772 but was not emperor at that time.
18. Shah Alam II. Born June 25, 1728 as Ali Guahar. Shah Alam II ruled as emperor from 24 December 1759 until his death on November 19, 1806.
19. Akbar Shah II. Born Mirza Akbar on April 22, 1760, Akbar ruled more as a figurehead under British rule than as an emperor. His rule lasted between November 19, 1806 and September 28, 1837.
20. Bahadur Shah II. Last of the Mughal emperors, was born on October 24, 1775 as Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammed Bahadur Shah. He ruled between September 28, 1837 until September 14, 1857 when he was deposed by the British and forced to flee the country. Bahadur Shah II died in exile in Burma on November 7, 1862.